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What Does Autism Do to a Person?

Some people with autism may be highly functioning and able to excel in certain areas, while others may require more support in their daily lives. In this article, we will explore what autism does to a person and how it affects their lives.

Understanding Autism

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects individuals in various ways. It is important to have a clear understanding of what autism is and how it can impact individuals in order to provide appropriate support and care.

What is Autism?

Autism, also known as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is a complex condition that affects the way individuals perceive and interact with the world around them. It is characterized by challenges in social communication and interaction, as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities.

Autism is a spectrum disorder, which means that it affects individuals to varying degrees. Some individuals with autism may have mild symptoms and be able to function independently, while others may have more significant challenges and require more support and assistance.

It is important to note that autism is not a result of poor parenting or external factors. It is a neurodevelopmental condition that is believed to have a combination of genetic and environmental factors contributing to its development.

How Autism Affects Individuals?

Autism can have a profound impact on various aspects of an individual's life. It affects not only how individuals interact with others but also how they perceive and process sensory information, their executive functioning skills, and their emotional regulation.

Individuals with autism often face challenges in social communication and interaction. They may struggle with understanding and using verbal and nonverbal cues, making eye contact, and engaging in reciprocal conversations. These difficulties can impact their ability to form and maintain relationships with others.

Sensory issues are also common in autism. Individuals with autism may experience sensory processing challenges, where their brains have difficulty regulating and interpreting sensory information. This can lead to hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity to certain stimuli, such as sound, touch, taste, or smell.

In addition, executive functioning skills, such as planning, organizing, and problem-solving, may be affected in individuals with autism. These difficulties can impact their ability to manage daily tasks and routines effectively.

Emotional regulation is another area that can be challenging for individuals with autism. They may have difficulty recognizing and expressing their emotions appropriately, which can result in behavioral and emotional outbursts.

Understanding how autism affects individuals is essential in providing the necessary support and interventions tailored to their specific needs. Seeking professional support, such as occupational therapy and other therapeutic approaches, can be beneficial in helping individuals with autism develop skills and strategies to navigate their daily lives more effectively.

boy wearing gray vest and pink dress shirt holding book

Sensory Issues in Autism

Individuals with autism often experience sensory issues that can significantly impact their daily lives. Understanding these sensory challenges is crucial for parents and caregivers to provide appropriate support and create sensory-friendly environments for their loved ones.

Sensory Processing Challenges

Autism is closely associated with atypical sensory processing, where individuals may have difficulty regulating and interpreting sensory information from their environment. This can lead to sensory processing challenges, making it challenging for individuals with autism to navigate their surroundings comfortably.

The sensory processing challenges in autism can manifest in different ways. Some individuals may be hypersensitive, meaning they are overly sensitive to certain sensory stimuli. Others may be hyposensitive, where they have a decreased sensitivity to sensory input. It's important to note that sensory preferences can vary from person to person with autism.

Common Sensory Issues in Autism

While sensory challenges can differ from person to person, there are some common sensory issues that individuals with autism may experience. These include:

Sensory Issue Description
Hypersensitivity to Sounds Some individuals with autism may have an extreme sensitivity to certain sounds, such as loud noises or specific frequencies. This sensitivity can lead to discomfort, anxiety, and even pain.
Hypersensitivity to Lights Bright lights, flickering lights, or certain lighting conditions can be overwhelming for individuals with autism. They may find it difficult to focus or may experience visual disturbances due to their heightened sensitivity to light.
Hypersensitivity to Touch Many individuals with autism have heightened sensitivity to touch, which can make certain textures, fabrics, or physical contact uncomfortable or even painful for them.
Hyposensitivity to Sensory Input On the other hand, some individuals with autism may have reduced sensitivity to sensory input. They may seek out intense sensory experiences such as deep pressure or strong smells to fulfill their sensory needs.
Sensory Seeking Behaviors Some individuals with autism engage in sensory seeking behaviors, such as spinning, rocking, or flapping their hands. These behaviors provide self-stimulation and help regulate their sensory systems.

Understanding and addressing these sensory issues is crucial for creating a supportive environment for individuals with autism. By being aware of their specific sensory challenges, parents and caregivers can implement strategies to minimize sensory overload and promote comfort and well-being.

Sensory Overload

Individuals with autism often experience sensory overload, which occurs when their sensory systems become overwhelmed by stimuli from the environment. This can lead to feelings of distress, discomfort, and difficulty in processing information. Understanding the causes and recognizing the signs and symptoms of sensory overload is crucial for providing support to individuals with autism.

Causes of Sensory Overload

Sensory overload in individuals with autism can be caused by various factors. The sensory processing challenges that individuals with autism face can make them more sensitive to certain sensory stimuli. This heightened sensitivity can lead to an overwhelming response when exposed to sensory input that others may find tolerable. Here are some common causes of sensory overload in individuals with autism:

  1. Auditory Overload: Loud noises, sudden sounds, or a combination of multiple sounds can trigger auditory overload. For example, a crowded and noisy environment or a sudden burst of loud music can be overwhelming for individuals with autism.
  2. Visual Overload: Bright lights, strobe lights, or an excessive amount of visual stimuli can contribute to visual overload. Busy patterns, cluttered spaces, or environments with rapidly changing visual elements can be overwhelming for individuals with autism.
  3. Tactile Overload: Certain textures, fabrics, or physical sensations can cause tactile overload. For some individuals, the sensation of certain clothing materials or the feeling of being touched can be overwhelming and uncomfortable.
  4. Olfactory Overload: Strong smells or a combination of various odors can lead to olfactory overload. Perfumes, cleaning products, or strong cooking smells can be overwhelming for individuals with autism.
  5. Gustatory Overload: Strong tastes or textures of food can contribute to gustatory overload. Some individuals with autism may have heightened sensitivity to certain tastes, temperatures, or textures, making it challenging for them to tolerate certain foods.

Signs and Symptoms of Sensory Overload

Recognizing the signs and symptoms of sensory overload in individuals with autism is crucial for providing support and helping them manage their sensory challenges. While the specific signs and symptoms can vary from person to person, here are some common indicators of sensory overload:

  • Heightened sensitivity: Individuals may exhibit an increased sensitivity to certain sensory stimuli, such as covering their ears in response to loud noises or avoiding bright lights.
  • Overwhelmed behavior: Individuals may display signs of distress, agitation, or anxiety when exposed to overwhelming sensory input. This can manifest as meltdowns, withdrawal, or seeking sensory-seeking behaviors.
  • Difficulty concentrating: Sensory overload can make it challenging for individuals to focus and concentrate on tasks. They may become easily distracted or have difficulty processing information.
  • Physical discomfort: Some individuals may experience physical sensations like headaches, dizziness, or nausea when overwhelmed by sensory input.
  • Avoidance behaviors: Individuals may actively avoid situations or environments that trigger sensory overload. This can include avoiding crowded places, certain textures, or specific smells.

Understanding the causes and signs of sensory overload allows parents and caregivers to create a supportive environment for individuals with autism. By minimizing overwhelming sensory input and providing appropriate coping strategies, it is possible to help individuals with autism manage and regulate their sensory experiences more effectively.

Coping Strategies for Sensory Issues

Individuals with autism often experience sensory issues that can be overwhelming and distressing. Fortunately, there are coping strategies that can help manage these challenges. Creating a sensory-friendly environment and employing sensory regulation techniques can make a significant difference in supporting individuals with autism.

Creating a Sensory-Friendly Environment

Creating a sensory-friendly environment involves making modifications to the physical space to reduce sensory stimuli and create a calming atmosphere. Here are some strategies to consider:

  • Lighting: Adjust the lighting in the environment to reduce harsh or flickering lights. Use natural lighting whenever possible and incorporate dimmer switches or curtains to control brightness.
  • Noise: Minimize excessive noise by using sound-absorbing materials, such as carpets or curtains. Consider using white noise machines or soothing background music to create a consistent and calming auditory environment.
  • Visual clutter: Declutter the space to minimize visual distractions. Use storage solutions to keep items organized and out of sight. Provide clear visual boundaries to define spaces and reduce visual overload.
  • Sensory breaks: Designate a quiet area or a sensory corner where individuals can retreat to when feeling overwhelmed. This space can be equipped with sensory tools like weighted blankets, fidget toys, or headphones to help individuals self-regulate.

Sensory Regulation Techniques

Sensory regulation techniques can help individuals with autism manage their sensory experiences and reduce feelings of overwhelm. Here are some techniques that can be beneficial:

  • Deep pressure: Applying deep pressure through hugs, weighted blankets, or compression garments can provide a calming and grounding effect. Deep pressure can help regulate the sensory system and promote relaxation.
  • Proprioceptive input: Engaging in activities that provide deep pressure to the joints and muscles, such as jumping, pushing, or carrying heavy objects, can help individuals regulate their sensory system and increase body awareness.
  • Sensory diet: A sensory diet involves incorporating specific sensory activities into daily routines to help individuals maintain optimal sensory regulation. This may include activities like swinging, brushing, or using therapy balls. Consultation with an occupational therapist can provide guidance in developing a personalized sensory diet.
  • Breathing exercises: Deep breathing exercises can help individuals regulate their nervous system and reduce anxiety. Encourage slow, deep breaths in through the nose and out through the mouth during moments of sensory overload.

By implementing these coping strategies, individuals with autism can better navigate sensory challenges and improve their overall well-being. It's important to remember that each individual is unique, and strategies should be tailored to their specific needs. Seeking professional support, such as occupational therapy or other therapeutic approaches, can provide additional guidance and personalized strategies for managing sensory issues.

Seeking Professional Support

When it comes to supporting individuals with autism who experience sensory issues, seeking professional assistance can be incredibly beneficial. Professionals trained in understanding and managing sensory challenges can provide valuable guidance and interventions. Two common approaches for addressing sensory issues in autism are occupational therapy and other therapeutic approaches.

Occupational Therapy

Occupational therapy (OT) is a widely recognized and effective intervention for individuals with sensory issues, including those with autism. Occupational therapists work closely with individuals to develop skills and strategies to navigate sensory challenges and improve overall daily functioning.

During occupational therapy sessions, therapists assess the individual's sensory processing difficulties and develop personalized treatment plans. These plans may include a variety of techniques such as sensory integration therapy, sensory diet implementation, and environmental modifications. The goal is to help individuals with autism develop better sensory regulation and enhance their ability to participate in daily activities.

It's important to note that occupational therapy is a collaborative process involving the therapist, the individual with autism, and their family. The therapist may also provide education and support to parents and caregivers, equipping them with tools and strategies to promote sensory well-being at home.

Other Therapeutic Approaches

In addition to occupational therapy, there are various other therapeutic approaches that can help individuals with autism manage their sensory issues. These approaches may be used in conjunction with or as alternatives to occupational therapy, depending on the individual's specific needs and preferences.

Some examples of other therapeutic approaches include:

  • Sensory-based interventions: These interventions focus on providing sensory experiences to help individuals with autism regulate their responses to sensory stimuli. This may involve activities such as deep pressure therapy, tactile stimulation, or proprioceptive input.
  • Behavioral interventions: These interventions, such as Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), focus on addressing challenging behaviors associated with sensory issues. ABA techniques aim to teach individuals adaptive behaviors and reduce behaviors that interfere with daily functioning.
  • Speech and language therapy: Speech and language therapists can support individuals with autism in developing communication skills and addressing any language-related challenges that may contribute to sensory issues.
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT): CBT can help individuals with autism identify and modify cognitive and behavioral patterns related to sensory issues. This therapy approach can assist in managing anxiety or other emotional difficulties associated with sensory challenges.

It's important to consult with professionals experienced in working with individuals with autism to determine the most appropriate therapeutic approaches for addressing sensory issues. Each individual's needs are unique, and a personalized approach is crucial.

By seeking professional support, individuals with autism and their families can access effective strategies and interventions to manage sensory challenges. Occupational therapy and other therapeutic approaches can play a vital role in improving sensory regulation, enhancing daily functioning, and promoting overall well-being. Remember, it's essential to collaborate with professionals who specialize in autism to ensure the most effective support for your loved one.


Is autism curable?

Currently, there is no cure for autism. However, early intervention and therapy can help individuals with autism manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Can adults be diagnosed with autism?

Yes, adults can be diagnosed with autism. In fact, many individuals go undiagnosed until adulthood. It's never too late to seek a diagnosis and get the support you need.

Are all people with autism the same?

No, every individual with autism is unique and experiences the disorder differently. This is why it's called a spectrum disorder.

Can someone have mild autism?

Yes, some individuals may have what is referred to as "high-functioning" or "mild" autism. They may have good language skills and cognitive abilities but still struggle with social interaction or sensory issues.

How can I support someone with autism?

One of the most important things you can do to support someone with autism is to learn about the disorder and how it affects them specifically. Be patient, understanding, and nonjudgmental. Encourage them to seek therapy or other interventions if needed.


Autism is a complex disorder that affects each person differently. While some people with autism may have exceptional skills, others may require more support in their daily lives. Communication, social interaction, and behavior are all areas that can be challenging for people with autism. It is important to provide support and understanding for individuals with autism to help them navigate the world and live fulfilling lives.


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